“Diffusion of radio and TV signals of a neighboring country up to 60 km in the territory along the border of the neighboring country is a normal process due to the physical characteristics of VHF and UHF frequencies (88-800 MHz).”
“Report” Siruz Abasbeyli, the former Minister of Communications, Chairman of the Public Council under the Ministry of Digital Development and Transport, said this while commenting on MP Javanshir Pashazadeh’s views on the broadcasting of Iranian and Georgian television and radio channels in the border regions.
He believes that neighboring countries can eliminate these obstacles or reduce them to a minimal level by coordinating frequencies, transmitter power, antennas’ directional diagram: “Coordination is through bilateral negotiations between the administrations of two neighboring countries, and if no agreement is reached, the International Telecommunication Organization (ITU) It is carried out through tripartite negotiations with the participation of ITU.
Azerbaijan is almost successfully carrying out the process of coordination with other neighboring countries except Iran in the ways indicated above.
Azerbaijan started the process of coordination with IRI during the Soviet period. In 1984, a joint meeting was held in Tehran with members of the Iranian government and representatives of the Central Committee of the USSR, the KGB of the USSR, the Ministry of Communications of the USSR, the Central Committee of the Central Committee of Azerbaijan, the KGB of Azerbaijan, and the Ministry of Communications of Azerbaijan. As a member of the delegation, I was also a member of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan CP. During the meeting, extensive discussions were held about interference of radio and television waves by both sides in the border zones. Decisions were made, protocols were signed, that is, we came to a common denominator. The life of this agreement took several months. As usual, the Iranian side began to violate the terms of the agreements. Our repeated appeals were unsuccessful. “The Iranian side has always shamelessly violated the terms of the agreements, and this situation continues until now.”
The former minister notes that talks were held with Iran on this issue in 1990: “In 1990, the delegation of the administrations of the USSR and the Republic of Iran held in Baku (the delegation included me as the deputy minister of communications and the director of Aztelecom) it included Azerbaijani officials, and some progress was made, although not completely. During the period of independence, contacts between the administrations are continued.
Unfortunately, in many cases, Iran does not agree with the coordination proposals, uses more powerful transmitters than the agreed parameters on coordinated frequencies and, most importantly, continues to spread propaganda aimed at Azerbaijani listeners or viewers on the territory of our country by broadcasting on uncoordinated frequencies. In some cases, external interference broadcasts are carried out on frequencies agreed to be allocated for Azerbaijan. These broadcasts can be reliably received in the southern region of the country, and in 70% of the country, including Baku, with varying quality.
The reason for this is the spread of signals to a large part of our territory by placing powerful (5 kW and more) radio and TV transmitters of IIR in the border region (Kuhi-Sanger, Parsabad, Mugan Aslanduz, Julfa, etc.) on the dominant heights. Iranian radio and TV programs do not have a large number only as state and provincial programs, but the same program is broadcast on 5-10 channels from the same station without the internal necessity to capture frequencies and interfere from more different channels, which in many cases prevents the unhindered broadcasting of Azerbaijani programs throughout the country. seriously hinders. In general, there are no private radio-television channels in Iran. Only state radio-television channels and programs are available. Programs in the Azerbaijani language are broadcasted from border stations aimed at Azerbaijani listeners (Ardebil FM, Tabriz FM, Aran FM radios and many other TV channels)”.
“Blocking of those channels can be (and is) used to combat propaganda broadcasts on frequencies where coordination efforts do not take place, although international agreements, including ITU radio regulations, do not allow this. As blocking, an FM or TV transmitter on a frequency that is illegally interfered with in the territory of the country that interference is prevented in an area with a radius of 40-60 km by broadcasting with a blocking transmitter. Any channel in the republic can be broadcast or simply an unmodulated signal can be transmitted. which may lead to dissatisfaction of the viewers or the program broadcaster.
To cover a radius of 40-60 km, the use of powerful transmitters is required, which leads to large investment, energy and operating costs, given the large number of interference channels and the size of the area required to be blocked. Also, when the other party detects jamming, it tries to avoid jamming by regularly changing frequencies. That is, they can switch to other frequencies.
One way to reduce costs is to prevent extraneous interference in densely populated areas by using small powerful 100-500 W jamming transmitters only in district centers. Although this is an effective method, it should be taken into account that FM radios are mainly monitored in cars, and in this case outside interference will still be received on highways and local roads when 10-15 km away from the jamming transmitter.
The most effective solution to these problems can be the installation of private radio stations in the regions. That is, the ministry can gladly provide technical assistance to radio enthusiasts who wish to organize private radio broadcasts in the regions.
Blocking can partially eliminate outside interference in the near term. In the long term, coordinating frequencies with technical meetings, involving ITU, diplomatic efforts, and achieving non-broadcasting of content aimed at viewers of other countries is a more promising option. But it depends more on political and other changing situations. Our corps of deputies can also raise these issues during employee vacations to different states. These problems are experienced all over the world,” the expert added.